Géraldine Gourbe is a philosopher, critic and art curator. She specializes in the Southern California art scene, the history of radical pedagogies and inclusive feminism. She has taught philosophy of art at ENSAD, the University of Metz, Sciences Po Paris, and the Beaux-arts of Marseille and Annecy. In 2018 she curated an exhibition at the Villa Arson in 2018 around the work of Judy Chicago and West Coast in the 1960s, entitled "Los Angeles, the cool years". Since 2015, she has been working on a counter-reading of the history of ideas and art in France from 1947 to 1989 in partnership with the art historian Florence Ostende. Her research led to the curating of the first edition of the Dunkerque Giganticism Art and Design Triennial. She co-signed with Hélène Guenin the exhibition at the Musée d'Art Moderne et d'Art Contemporain de Nice She Bam Pow POP Wizz : les amazones du Pop, May-September 2020. She has published a collective book on the alternative scene in Los Angeles In the Canyon, Revise the Canon, utopian knowledge, radical pedagogy, and artist run spaces in Southern California, Shelter Press, Rennes and a monograph on the artist Judy Chicago, To Sustain the Vision, Shelter Press, Rennes & Villa Arson, Nice (March 2020).
Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1969), translated from Portuguese (Brazil) to English by Myra Bergman Ramos, The Continuum, 2005.
On a philosophical level, Freire is inspired by phenomenology, existentialism, Christian personalism and humanist Marxism. In the early 1960s, various mass education movements were created in Brazil, including: the Popular Cultura Movement (MCP) in May 1960; the “Campaign standing on the ground also learns to read” in Natal, February 1961; and the Basic Education Movement (MEB) in March 1961.
We will cite specific terminology coined by Freire in quotation marks.
“[The coloniser] leaves out of account the human memory and the ineffaceable marks left upon it; and then, above all there is something which perhaps he has never known: we only become what we are by the radical and deep-seated refusal of that which others have made of us. Three generations did we say? Hardly has the second generation opened their eyes than from then on they’ve seen their fathers being flogged. In psychiatric terms, they are “traumatized” for life. But these constantly renewed aggressions, far from bringing them to submission, thrust them into an unbearable contradiction which the European will pay for sooner or later. After that, when it is their turn to be broken in, when they are taught what shame and hunger and pain are, all that is stirred up in them is a volcanic fury whose force is equal to that of the pressure put upon them.” Jean-Paul Sartre, preface to The Wretched of the Earth by Frantz Fanon, (Maspero,1961), Black Cat Edition, 1968.
Valerie Solanas, SCUM Manifesto, Association pour tailler les hommes en pièces (Olympia Press,1968), Maspero, 1971, Mille et Une Nuits – Fayard, 2005, postface by Michel Houellebecq.
Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, op. cit., p.46.
Géraldine Gourbe, “Savoir et devenir pédagogique de l’émancipation, afro/féminisme et afro/marxisme”, Initiales journal #10, dedicated to Maria Montessori, September 2017, p.52-54