The Series : « Aspects of contemporary art criticism worldwide »
Whether they are articles published at the end of an AICA symposium or produced by Switch (on Paper) following an international call for papers, the texts in this dossier bear witness to the diversity, singularity and permanence of an art critic whose place remains more than ever necessary to grasp the issues at stake in the world, placing artists and culture at the heart of the debate. A partnership that materializes a community of spirit and the active support of Switch (on Paper) for art critics, whose status and future are the subject of in-depth reflection.
The Author : Lisa Paul Streitfeld
Dr. Lisa Streitfeld is a philosopher and art critic. She chronicled a gender-balanced collaborative continental philosophy Conversion in the European Graduate School Media Lab for her master’s thesis (Hermeneutics of New Modernism, Dresden; New Yor... [ read more ]
In 1955, the War of Independence (1955-1959) of the island of Cyprus, which has been part of the British colonial empire since 1878, pitted British power against the Greek Cypriots. Led by General Georges Grivas, the latter founded the National Organization of Cypriot Fighters (Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston, EOKA), which fought for the end of the occupation, notably by using guerrilla methods. In order to reinforce these troops, the United Kingdom began to recruit Turkish Cypriot militias. This division of the population will soon lead to inter-community violence between the Greek and Turkish sides. In total, this violence resulted in the death of about 650 people (two-thirds Turkish), the expulsion of Greek Cypriots from the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and the division of the island into two opposing entities.
Following the war of independence of the island of Cyprus and its division into two entities (the Greek Cypriot community and the Turkish Cypriot community, a minority), the Turkish invasion was the military offensive of the Turkish armed forces launched on 20 July 1974 and which led to the occupation of 38% of Cypriot territory. Subsequently, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization demanded the withdrawal of the Greek officers. Greece left the military structures of the alliance on 14 August 1974 because it did not prevent the Turkish invasion, and reintegrated them on 20 October 1980 after the lifting of the Turkish veto.
Malegaze is a concept proposed by the film critic, director and feminist, Laura Mulvey, from the observation of Hollywood cinema, heterogeneous and gendered, in these modes of representation and identiﬁcation by the spectator (constructed to suit the normative male desire). Narrative and action are carried by male roles. Women occupy secondary places in a heterosexual division of labor. They become objects of voyeurism, sadism, or are subjected to a treatment of overvaluing the feminine cult.
Legendary conflict of the Greek mythology whose historicity is controversial, the war of Troy (sometimes called second Trojan war in reference to the expedition led against the city by Heracles after the quest for the Golden Fleece that some call the first Trojan war) probably took place around 1200 BC. It is the Trojan prince Paris who triggers it by kidnapping Helen, wife of the king of Sparta, Menelaus. In retaliation, the latter raises with his brother Agamemnon an expedition gathering most of the Greek kings, which besieges Troy and finally wins the victory. The Trojan War and its consequences formed the subject of a vast epic cycle, the “Trojan Cycle”, whose works are lost today with the exception of Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey.
In Greek mythology, Hermaphrodite, son of Hermes and Aphrodite, inherited the beauty of his parents at birth. One day, while swimming in the Lake of Carie, inhabited by the naiad Salmacis, she falls in love with the handsome teenager. As Hermaphrodite rejects his advances, Salmacis embraces him by force and begs the gods to be united with him forever. The wish is granted and they become one bisexual being, both male and female. Hermaphrodite then makes a vow to her parents that any man bathing in the nymph’s lake would also come out with female attributes. Her name was then used to refer to that which combines the characteristics of both sexes. This myth can also be compared to the myth of the androgynous women in Plato’s Banquet, who possessed both female and male characters and whom Zeus separated into two halves.
Shiva is a deity, worshipped by Shaivites (one of the main variants of Hinduism, appearing in India on the 3rd century BC.) Shiva is believed to be the god of yoga (often depicted in deep meditation), the one in possession of universal, supreme and absolute knowledge. According to the Shaivites tradition, this god holds five main features, being the creator, the preserver, the transformer, the concealer and the revealer (through the blessing).
Realpolitik, realpolitik: international politics based on considerations of power relations and concrete possibilities (without ideological influence).
Publishing Partnership with AICA International
This text by Lisa Paul Streitfeld is published in partnership with AICA following an international call for participation launched at the end of 2019. Out of some sixty proposals for articles, fourteen have been selected and will be published from 28 August as part of Manifesta 13 Marseille within the programme « Les Parallèles du Sud ».
AICA (International Association of Art Critics) is an NGO founded in 1950 under UNESCO patronage for the purpose of reinforcing worldwide freedom of speech in the area of art criticism and ensure its diversity. Its missions include promoting the discipline in the visual arts by contributing to ensuring sound methodological foundations, protecting the moral and professional interests of art critics by defending the rights of all members equally, ensuring permanent communication among all members by encouraging national and international meetings, improving and facilitating information and international exchanges in the visual arts and contributing to reciprocal knowledge and closer understanding between differing cultures.
Associate publisher, the Emerige Endowment Fund
Emerige: a proactive patron of the arts
In the firm belief that art has the power to change our daily reality, Emerige is a corporate sponsor committed to contemporary creativity by bringing culture closer to everyone, but especially the youngest in society. The Emerige Endowment Fund encourages young French artists via its Emerige Revelations Grant Scheme and its support for arts and culture educational programmes.
As a company devoted to building more beautiful cities for everyone, Emerige also contributes to bringing more art into urban communities by acquiring or commissioning contemporary art pieces under the terms of the 1 Building, 1 Artwork charter.
Parallèles du Sud, Manifesta 13 Marseille
This series of publications published in partnership with AICA International (International Association of Art Critics) is one of the 86 projects labeled “Les Parallèles du Sud”, as part of MANIFESTA 13, which will take place in Marseille from 28 August to 29 November 2020.
Manifesta is the European Nomadic Biennial, which originated in the early 1990s in response to the political, economic, and social change following the end of the Cold War and the subsequent steps towards European integration. Manifesta has developed into a platform for dialogue between art and society by inviting the cultural and artistic community to produce new creative experiences with, and for, the context in which it takes place. Manifesta rethinks the relations between culture and society investigating and catalysing positive social change in Europe through contemporary culture in a continuous dialogue with the social sphere of a specific place.
Manifesta was founded by the Dutch art historian, Hedwig Fijen. Each new edition is fundraised individually and managed by a mix of permanent international team and local specialists. Manifesta is working from its offices in Amsterdam and Marseille.